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PT Makmur Sejahtera Wisesa
Environmental & Social Review Summary
This Environmental and Social Review Summary is prepared and distributed in advance of the IFC Board of Directors’ consideration of the proposed transaction. Its purpose is to enhance the transparency of IFC’s activities, and this document should not be construed as presuming the outcome of the Board of Director’s decision. Board dates are estimates only.
Any documentation which is attached to this Environmental and Social Review Summary has been prepared by the project sponsor and authorization has been given for public release. IFC has reviewed this documentation and considers that it is of adequate quality to be released to the public but does not endorse the content.
East Asia and the Pacific
Coal - Thermal Power Generation
MAKMUR SEJAHTERA WISESA, PT
Date ESRS disclosed
March 23, 2007
Last Updated Date
June 12, 2008
Signed: June 30, 2008
Approved: June 21, 2007
View Summary of Proposed Investment (SPI),
Category & Applicable Standards
Key Issues& Mitigation
Overview of IFC's scope of review
IFC’s review of this project consisted of appraising environmental, health and safety and social information submitted by PT Makmur Sejahtera Wisesa (MSW or the company), a field visit conducted by the IFC project team including its environmental specialist to the proposed project site, its surroundings, and the nearby existing coal mine operated by PT Adaro Indonesia, and interviews with MSW’s officers in charge of environmental, health and safety, and social management. Key documents reviewed by IFC included the following:
English version of UKL-UPL (Environmental Management and Monitoring Study):
- Environmental Management and Monitoring Study, 2x30MW Coal Fired Steam Power Generator (PLTU), Tanjung – Tabalong, PT. Makmur Sejahtera Wisesa, March 2007
Bahasa Indonesia version of UKL-UPL:
- Upaya Pengelolaan Lingkungan (UKL) dan Upaya Pemantauan Lingkungan (UPL), PLTU BATU BARA 2X30 MW, DI TANJUNG – TABALONG, PT MAKMUR SEJAHTERA WISESA, Maret, 2007
After the ESRS was disclosed on March 23, 2007, there have been some changes made to the Project. IFC reviewed additional information submitted by MSW to update the ESRS.
MSW plans to construct, own and operate a 60MW (2x30MW) mine-mouth coal-fired power plant on a 100 ha site in Mabuun Village, Murung Pudak, Sub-district of Tabalong Regency, South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia (the project). The nearby (4-5km) Wara coal mine, one of the three coal mines (Tutupan, Paringin and Wara) being operated by PT Adaro, will supply the fuel (about 1,200 ton/day) for the plant by trucks. Coal produced by PT Adaro has very low sulfur and ash contents and is traded internationally as “Envirocoal”. MSW will sell most of its electricity to PT Adaro under a Power Purchase Agreement. It also plans to sell its excess electricity to the local power grid as well as provide a small amount of free electricity to the local community. Water for the operation of the plant will be taken from the Tabalong River and pumped to the plant through a 9 km pipeline. An intake well will be constructed in the riverbank situated in Sulingan Village of Murung Pudak Sub-district. About 75 km, 70 kV transmission line for the Adaro’s coal transportation conveyer, as well as about 4-5 km 20 kV transmission line to the PLN’s Tanjung Substation which will connect to the forthcoming South Central-East Kalimantan interconnection line, will be developed to deliver the generated electricity. An area of about 7 ha of land will be provided within the plant boundary for ash disposal. The total project cost is estimated at $162.4 million. IFC is proposing to provide financing of up to $25 million plus a syndicated loan of up to $96.8 million.
Identified applicable performance standards
Considering the nature of the project and based on the findings of the IFC’s appraisal, the following Performance Standards are applicable to the project:
- PS-1 Social and Environmental Assessment and Management Systems
- PS-2 Labor and Working Conditions
- PS-3 Pollution Prevention and Abatement
- PS-4 Community Health, Safety and Security
- PS-5 Land Acquisition and Involuntary Resettlement
The proposed project site is surrounded by rubber, palm oil and other mixed plantations, and currently being used for small scale farming with some undeveloped areas (bushes and grass fields). No physical relocation of people is expected. The project is not expected to have adverse impacts on any indigenous peoples, the nearest being the residents of Warukin Village about 9km from the site. Nor will the project impact any sensitive natural resources, or cultural heritage.
Environmental and social categorization and rationale
The project is a small scale mine-mouth, coal-fired power plant project which will use coal from the nearby existing coal mine (Wara coal mine), operated by PT Adaro Indonesia, producing “Envirocoal”, one of the cleanest quality coal traded internationally in the world. Potential environmental impacts of the project, typical to small coal-fired power generation, including ash utilization and disposal, are limited, few in number, generally site-specific, largely reversible and readily addressed through mitigation measures proposed in the UKL-UPL and incorporated into the project’s technical design. Land acquisition for the project site will not require any physical relocation of people. No other major Performance Standards issues (biodiversity, indigenous people, cultural heritage) were identified. Considering all these, the project has been categorized as B by IFC, in accordance with the IFC’s Policy on Social and Environmental Sustainability.
Key environmental and social issues and mitigation
MSW has presented plans to address these impacts to ensure that the proposed project will, upon implementation of the specific mitigation measures incorporated into the project design and operation, comply with the environmental and social requirements – the host country laws and regulations and the IFC Performance Standards on Social and Environmental Sustainability. The information about how these potential impacts will be addressed by the company/project is summarized in the paragraphs that follow. Further information is provided in the attached documentation.
PS-1 Social and Environmental Assessment and Management Systems:
Social and Environmental Assessment – In 2004, MSW and PT Pembangkitan Jawa Bali (Subsidiary of PLN – a vertically integrated utility, wholly owned by the Government of Indonesia) proposed to develop a 2x50MW coal-fired power plant in Tabalong and prepared a full environmental impact assessment (AMDAL: Analisis Mengenai Dampak Lingkungan). This was reviewed and approved by the Local Environmental Impact Control Agency (BAPEDALDA: Badan Pengendalian Dampak Lingkungan Daerah), South Kalimantan, in October 2004.
Under the Government of Indonesia regulation on environmental impact assessment, including Government Regulation Number 27/1999 Concerning Environmental Impact Assessment (AMDAL), and other relevant regulations, especially Decree of State Minister for Environment No. 11 of 2006 regarding Type of Enterprises And/Or Activities That Require AMDAL, projects of 100MW or larger require AMDAL, whereas projects less than 100MW require UKL-UPL (Environmental Management and Environmental Monitoring Study).
In early 2006, the project proposal reduced in capacity from 2x50MW to 2x30MW. MSW prepared an earlier version of UKL-UPL and this was approved by BAPEDALDA in May 2006. However, subsequent geological explorations by PT Adaro Indonesia, revealed that the proposed power plant site was located on the Wara coal bearing area. The project location was therefore shifted to the north east area of the Wara coal mine, and further revised UKL-UPL was prepared by Environmental Research Center, Research Agency of Lambung Mangkurat University (UNLAM), Banjarmasin, South Karimantan (the institute that prepared the original AMDAL). This was reviewed by BAPEDALDA in January 2007. The report has been further revised as per BAPEDALDA comments and was approved by BAPEDALDA in March 2007.
Majority of the power from the project is expected to be used to operate a newly built 70 km conveyor to transport coal from the Adaro mine to the Kelanis barge-Loading Facility. Adaro has current approvals from the Government of Indonesia to mine up to a 39 million ton of coal per year. In April 2008, Adaro applied to expand its capacity to 45 million ton of coal per year. A full environmental impact assessment (AMDAL) is under way for this expansion project which includes the 70 km conveyor. The conveyor is planned to be built about 50 m away from the existing haul road being used exclusively by Adaro for transportation of coal. About 700 ha of land will be acquired (70 km length x 100 m width) for the conveyor. Up to 30 land owners / users are expected to be impacted by the land acquisition. The AMDAL is expected to recommend appropriate environmental and social mitigation measures for the conveyor (e.g. fugitive dust and noise mitigation, alternatives for crossing such as fly over or under pass, safety features, etc.). Once completed, the conveyor would be the primary mover of coal and the haul road trucking will supplement the conveyor. No loss of jobs for the truck drivers is expected. Since both MSW and Adaro are controlled by the same owners, MSW will work with Adaro to monitor and minimize the environmental and social risks of the conveyor for successful operation of the project.
Action Plan – MSW will develop the project to fully comply with both the Indonesian regulations and standards and the IFC Performance Standards on Social and Environmental Sustainability. Various mitigation measures are incorporated into the project design. MSW will implement the Action Plan which will mainly constitute the proposed management, mitigation and monitoring programs described in the UKL-UPL. Additional elements of the Action Plan will include:
- appointment of Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) Officer and Community Liaison Officer at MSW for both the construction phase and the operational phase,
- implementation of any follow-up actions, if needed, to ensure that the land transfer, land acquisition, and right-of-way acquisition will meet IFC Performance Standard 5 (Land Acquisition and Involuntary Resettlement) – before start of construction,
- review, and implement if adequate, back-up options for water supply to the project (e.g. underground water, water from PT Adaro mine) to supplement the planned water intake from the Tabalong River, as suggested in the UKL-UPL – before project completion,
- prioritization and monitoring of local hire for both the construction phase and the operational phase, and
- establishment and implementation of Environmental, Health and Safety and Social Management System for both the construction phase and the operational phase – before start of construction (construction phase) and within six month from the commercial operation of the project (operational phase).
Organizational Capacity – MSW will initially consist of about 30 staff including a core team of specialists and engineers in different disciplines to manage development of the project. MSW will be supported by Poyry, a global consulting and engineering firm, as Owner’s Engineer. Implementation of the Action Plan will be managed by MSW in coordination with the Owner’s Engineer and an EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction) contractors. The operation and maintenance (O&M) of the project will initially be conducted by an O&M contractor. MSW will gradually recruit its own staff for O&M, who will be trained by the O&M contractor. Implementation of the environmental, health and safety mitigation measures in the Action Plan relevant to the roles of EPC contractors and the O&M contractor (initial stage), will be supervised by MSW. MSW’s core team will be responsible for land acquisition, establishment of Environmental, Health and Safety and Social Management System, obtaining and complying with environmental permits, management of EHS trainings and on-going community engagement.
Training – MSW plans to recruit a team of 88 staff for O&M of the project. Contracts with EPC contractors and O&M contractor (for initial phase) will include provisions of necessary trainings to recruited MSW staff. As part of the MSW’s commitment to comply with IFC Performance Standards, MSW will develop and implement a program to train employees and contractors with direct responsibility for activities relevant to the project’s social and environmental performance.
Monitoring and Reporting – Various monitoring programs were proposed in the UKL-UPL. As part of the Environmental, Health and Safety and Social Management System, MSW will establish an overall monitoring and reporting framework to evaluate the implementation status of the Action Plan and to provide the affected communities with periodic reports that describe progress with implementation of the Action Plan on issues that involve ongoing risk to or impacts on affected communities, and on issues that consultation process has identified as of concern to those communities.
PT Adaro coal mine operation and MSW Project – MSW is owned 99.6% by PT Adaro Energy, a holding company, which also indirectly owns the majority shares of Adaro. Adaro started its production in 1991 and has been constantly increasing annual production levels reaching 34 million ton in 2006. About 70% of “Envirocoal” is exported to Europe, US, Australia, Asian countries, and 30% is consumed in Indonesia. Coal is hauled from the mines to Kelanis barge loading facility along the Adaro’s dedicated 75 km coal haul road. Coal is then crushed, and transferred by barges through the Barito River to transshipment location located at offshore Banjarmasin, or to the export coal terminal on the island of Pulau Laut off the south eastern coast of Kalimantan, or directly to customers. PT Adaro is implementing various environmental management and social programs for the affected local communities. MSW is of the view that development a coal-fired power plant in the area where domestic coal is extracted, exported to foreign countries, or transported to other parts of the country, would deliver benefits and create economic opportunities for the local communities. The power plant will provide more reliable electricity at a lower cost. Economic benefits will be realized through local employment and procurement. This is likely to generate the perception by the communities that their domestic coal contributes to their economic wellbeing.
PS-2 Labor and Working Conditions:
During the construction phase, about 400 persons, including 20 expatriate staff, will be working for the project. About 230 persons will be recruited from the local areas, based on their suitability and skills. During the operational phase, a total of 88 employees are expected to be required. Some of them will be recruited from construction workers after passing selection, while others will be new personnel with specific qualifications. MSW is fully aware of the potential social risk of a temporary influx of workers from other regions, especially skilled workers from urban areas, with cultural traits that are very different from those of the local villagers. MSW will ensure that such risks are minimized through careful management of Engineering, Procurement and Construction contractors and sub-contractors and the company’s hiring policy that will prioritize local hiring. As proposed in the UKL-UPL, MSW will monitor local employment by MSW and its contractors working for the project.
Strict occupational health and safety management will be implemented by MSW in accordance with good international practice, including providing employees with, and requiring use of, necessary Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). MSW will also manage and monitor strict usage of PPE by its contractors.
PS-3 Pollution Prevention and Abatement:
Construction Phase – Equipment for the development of the project are shipped from main ports in Java Island to Kelanis port in South Kalimantan, and then transported toward the project location of about 75km distance using the PT Adaro’s haul road. Fill soil will be taken from mine area of Pt Adaro. Various mitigation measures were proposed in the UKL-UPL, and MSW will implement those, in coordination with the EPC contractors, to avoid or minimize adverse impacts during the construction phase.
Air Emissions and Air Quality – Proposed mitigation measures include:
- 65 m chimney to have better dispersion of air pollutants,
- fabric filter (bag filter) to reduce particulate matter to achieve 50 mg/Nm3 (6%O2) – World Bank guideline, and in compliance with Indonesian standard of 150 mg/m3 (25C, 6%O2) which is equivalent to 136 mg/Nm3 (6%O2),
- use of Wara coal which has very low sulfur content (0.4% maximum) achieving Indonesian standard of 750 mg/m3 (25C, 6%O2) which is equivalent to 818 mg/Nm3 (6%O2), in full compliance with World Bank guideline of 2,000 mg/Nm3 (6%O2),
- CFB boilers with inherently lower NOx emissions to achieve 500 mg/Nm3 (6%O2), in full compliance with Indonesian standard of 850 mg/m3 (25C, 6%O2) which is equivalent to 930 mg/Nm3 (6%O2), and World Bank guideline of 750 mg/Nm3 (6%O2),
- water spraying onto coal storage and storing coal in covered storage to minimize fugitive dust emissions,
- dust extraction / suppression at coal unloading yard, dust extractor in the coal transfer point equipped with fabric filter of 99% efficiency, dust extractor at coal bunker, covered gallery conveyor and telescopic chute work at ash conveyance system, also to minimize fugitive dust emissions.
UKL-UPL provided an analysis showing that with these mitigation measures, air quality impacts are minimized and Indonesian air quality standards will be maintained. MSW will install and operate continuous emission monitoring system for SOx, NOx and particulate matter. Ambient air quality monitoring will also be conducted quarterly at communities surrounding the project site.
Liquid Effluent – Proposed mitigation measures include:
- use of closed cooling system to avoid large quantity of cooling water intake / thermal discharge,
- reuse of cooling tower blow down for coal handling system and ash handling system,
- treatment of oil waste (lube and fuel oil) in oil-water separator,
- use of seepage tank for domestic waste effluents,
- neutralization of demineralization plant regeneration effluent, and
- collection of remaining cooling tower blow down, boiler blow down, demineralization plant waste water, clarifier sludge and filtration waste in guard pond, and reuse of water from guard pond, with balance to be treated before discharge.
MSW will ensure that effluents comply with both Indonesian standards, South Kalimantan standards, and the World Bank effluent guidelines. Volume and water quality of effluents will be monitored regularly to evaluate effectiveness of wastewater treatment of the project.
Waste (Ash) Management – Proposed mitigation measures include:
- 7 ha of land for ash dykes planned for ash disposal for 7 years (assuming no utilization of ash),
- use of fly ash for manufacturing building blocks and bricks, and
- disposal of ash to ash dykes lined with impermeable HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) to prevent ash seepage into soil.
Water Intake – The project plans to take water needed for the operation of the project (about 350 m3/h) from Tabalong River and pumped by 175 m3/hour capacity pumps (2 running plus 1 reserve) from the river via a 250mm diameter pipe buried underground along the existing road. MSW is aware of the potential impacts of the water intake on existing water users, especially during dry season. MSW will minimize water consumption by such means as closed cooling system and recycling of water usage within the power plant. The river flow is in general large enough to supply water to the project, but UKL-UPL analyzed that with 4 % probability (once in 25 years), the minimum river water flow could be reduced to 0.51 m3/s (or 1,840 m3/h), and with 2% probability (once in 50 years) to 0.23 m3/s (or 830 m3/h), suggesting that the extraction of 350 m3/h water by the project could affect use of river water by other users including local people during extreme low-flow conditions. UKL-UPL also analyzed the option of taking water from aquifer in the project area, but concluded that the aquifer option is insufficient. UKL-UPL suggested, and MSW is committed, to
- control and limit volume and time of water taking from Tabalong River considering water availability of the river,
- provide other alternative water sources such as underground water or water pumped from PT Adaro coal mine in Wara as a back-up, and
- use the project area as rain water preservation by making artesian well for rainwater of building and drainage flowing into runoff reservoir. MSW will also monitor the Tabalong River hydrology, water consumption and complaints by downstream communities during dry season.
Noise Mitigation – Acoustic enclosures will be provided to achieve prescribed noise levels and silencers will be provided for fans and safety valves as required. As suggested by UKL-UPL, MSW will implement ambient noise monitoring at communities surrounding the project site quarterly.
Green Belt – MSW will develop and maintain a green belt (wide-leave high and flexible trunk trees) around the power plant as a buffer zone surrounding the project site.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions – MSW estimates that the project may emit 0.58 million tCO2/year at 1,230 gCO2/kWh, assuming 27% Higher Heating Value (HHV) basis, or 30% Lower Heating Value (LHV) basis generating efficiency, and calorific value of the coal as 3,800 kcal/kg (HHV). This 0.58 million tCO2/year is about 0.17% of the total Indonesian CO2 emissions in 2005 (341 million tCO2/year) according to International Energy Agency statistics. In 2005, 51,774 GWh of electricity was generated by coal-fired power plants in Indonesia, with heat consumption of 15,786 thousand ton of oil equivalent at LHV (or about 183,600 GWh heat input at LHV). This level shows average coal-fired thermal power efficiency of about 28 % (LHV) in 2005. Although the project is small in scale using high moisture coal with limited achievable generation efficiency, the energy efficiency of the project (30% LHV) is expected to exceed the Indonesian average (also about 28 % LHV) which reflects performance of larger, and relatively newer coal-fired power plants in the country.
The existing palm oil plantations around the proposed site may provide opportunities for co-firing biomass waste with coal. The CFB boiler to be adopted by the project is capable of using such mixed fuels of coal and biomass waste. This may also create additional local benefits and jobs. MSW is reviewing this option. MSW will annually quantify and monitor GHG emissions from the project in accordance with internationally recognized methodologies.
PS-4 Community Health, Safety and Security:
The air quality impacts during construction phase due to transportation of construction material are one of the concerns raised by communities. As proposed in the UKL-UPL, MSW will implement mitigation measures such as limiting the truck speed at maximum 40 km/h on public road and 25 km/h on village road, water sprinkling on village roads passing through dense settlements during dry season, coordination between MSW and PT Cakung Permata Nusa (neighboring palm and rubber plantation company) on the use of palm and rubber farming roads.
UKL-UPL also identified the traffic accident as one of the concerns during construction phase. MSW will implement not only the strict management of the traffic speed limit of construction vehicles, but also, control of traffic frequency by loaded truck fleet and establishment of an appropriate traffic accident handling and settlement framework.
To support the improvement of the health status of community members, MSW will provide health services to not only to the employees and contractors, but also to the communities near the project site.
The project plans to have 4 security personnel in a shift. As part of complying with PS-4, MSW will train them adequately in the use of force and appropriate conduct toward workers and the local community, and to require them to act within the applicable law.
PS-5 Land Acquisition and Involuntary Resettlement:
Project Site – The company acquired about 100 hectares for the power plant site (about 30 hectares for the planned facilities, plus 70 hectares for future expansion). The area for the proposed power plant site was the property of the government of the Tabalong Regency, but was used by about 77 people for mixed small scale plantations. Land transfer was undertaken by MSW in cooperation with Tabalong Regency. The compensation to the land users was determined by a team appointed by the Tabalong Regency after discussions with the local users. MSW paid the total compensation amount to the local government, who in turn disbursed to the land users. MSW worked closely with the Tabalong Regency to expedite the process. MSW understands that the compensation was based on market rates plus a premium.
Other Facilities – In addition, MSW needs to acquire:
- right-of-way for the 9 km water pipeline from the Tabalong River to the project site, mainly along existing roads, and
- maximum 30m x 30m water intake area at a riverbank of the Tabalong River.
Commitment by MSW to PS-5 – MSW is aware of the need to compensate people in a fair and transparent manner for the sustainable implementation of the project, and committed to work with the local government to achieve this in accordance with the local requirements and IFC Performance Standard 5 (Land Acquisition and Involuntary Resettlement).
Client's community engagement
As part of the UKL-UPL preparation, MSW and the UNLAM team conducted consultations with villagers of Mabuun, Maburai and Warukin in the surroundings of the project site. The consultations started in late 2006 and ended in early 2007. UKL-UPL indicated that 93% of the people interviewed said that the project would have positive impacts. Concerns of negative impacts were about erosion, dust waste, and price increases. UKL-UPL has proposed, and MSW will implement, measures to mitigate the risk of erosion and dust emissions.
UKL-UPL identified concerns of some community members about the final location of the project site and compensation uncertainty. UKL-UPL suggested, and MSW is committed, to strengthen on-going consultation and communication with communities in order to manage these issues.
Local access of project documentation
The following UKL-UPL (Environmental Management and Environmental Monitoring Study) documents, dated March 2007, as received by MSW, are attached to this ESRS. MSW also disclosed the Bahasa Indonesian version of the UKL-UPL locally. UKL-UPL has been placed for public review at:
- MSW office in Tanjung Tabalong
Jl Stadion 27 Tanjung- Tabalong,
- MSW office in Jakarta
Menara Kadin Indonesia,
19 A JI.H.R. Rasuna Said,
Blk. X-5, Kav. 2-3,
Availability of UKL-UPL was announced by local newspaper (name: Banjarmasin Post) on March 27, 2007.
MSW’s Community Liaison Officer for the project preparation phase is conducting ongoing public consultation and managing land transfer, land acquisition and right-of-way acquisition activities for the project.
English version of the UKL-UPL:
- Environmental Management and Monitoring Study, 2x30MW Coal Fired Steam power Generator (PLTU), Tanjung – Tabalong, PT. Makmur Sejahtera Wisesa, March 2007
Bahasa Indonesia version of UKL-UPL:
- Upaya Pengelolaan Lingkungan (UKL) dan Upaya Pemantauan Lingkungan (UPL), PLTU BATU BARA 2X30 MW, DI TANJUNG – TABALONG, PT MAKMUR SEJAHTERA WISESA, Maret, 2007
Contact details of MSW about the project:
Mr Deepak Khullar
PT Makmur Sejahtera Wisesa
Menara Kadin Indonesia, 19 A JI.H.R.
Rasuna Said, Blk. X-5, Kav. 2-3
Jakarta 12950, Indonesia
PT Makmur Sejahtera Wisesa
Jl Stadion 27 Tanjung - Tabalong,
Kalimantan Selatan, Indonesia
Phone: +62 526 2024112,
Fax: +62 526 2024112 ,
IFC supports its clients in addressing environmental and social issues arising from their business activities by requiring them to set up and administer appropriate grievance mechanisms and/or procedures to address complaints from Affected Communities.
In addition, Affected Communities have unrestricted access to the Compliance Advisor Ombudsman (CAO), the independent accountability mechanism for IFC. The CAO is mandated to address complaints from people affected by IFC-supported business activities in a manner that is fair, objective, and constructive, with the goal of improving environmental and social project outcomes and fostering greater public accountability of IFC.
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Complaints may relate to any aspect of IFC-supported business activities that is within the mandate of the CAO. They can be made by any individual, group, community, entity, or other party affected or likely to be affected by the environmental or social impacts of an IFC-financed business activity. Complaints can be submitted to the CAO in writing to the address below:
Compliance Advisor Ombudsman
International Finance Corporation
2121 Pennsylvania Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20433 USA
Tel: 1 202 458 1973
Fax: 1 202 522 7400
The CAO receives and addresses complaints in accordance with the criteria set out in its Operational Guidelines which are available at: www.cao-ombudsman.org
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